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      托福閱讀如何利用因果邏輯詞快速定位解題?

      2019-04-22 15:45     供稿單位: 新航道     原創作者:vince老師    

      出國英語考試有哪些 雅思6.5是什么水平 雅思閱讀評分標準 托福閱讀評分標準 雅思和托福的區別

        大家知道在托福考試中經常涉及到對于邏輯的考察,其中因果邏輯是托福閱讀中常考的邏輯關系,利用因果邏輯能幫助我們迅速鎖取定位,節約時間,下面我們看一下何利用因果邏輯來快速定位解題

        審題

        首先通過審題,利用因果邏輯詞能確定是因果類事實信息題,比如下面的題干:

        1. According to paragraph 6, why might the puzzling questions about the paintings never be answered?

        2. According to paragraph 2, sculptors in the Italian Renaissance stopped using cannonballs in bronze statues of horses because

        3. According to the passage, which of the following is one of the reasons that tunas are in constant motion?

        4. According to paragraph 5, which of the following is a factor responsible for the greater air turbulence in urban environments?

        通過why, because, reasons, response for這些詞(短語),可以確定原文中會有相應的因果邏輯句(群)的表述。接下來我們只需要從原文中找出因句果邏輯表述的句(群),通過分析邏輯承接對象,匹配選項找出正確答案。



        實戰練

        例1.(tpo23p1q5)Paragraph 3

        The burning of fuel, such as by cars, is not the only source of this increased heat. Two other factors contribute to the higher overall temperature in cities. The first is the heat capacity of the materials that constitute the city, which is typically dominated by concrete and asphalt. During the day, heat from the Sun can be conducted into these materials and stored—to be released at night. But in the countryside materials have a significantly lower heat capacity because a vegetative blanket prevents heat from easily flowing into and out of the ground. The second factor is that radiant heat coming into the city from the Sun is trapped in two ways: (1) by a continuing series of reflection among the numerous vertical surfaces that buildings present and (2) by the dust dome, the cloudlike layer of polluted air that most cities produce. Shortwave radiation from the Sun passes through the pollution dome more easily than outgoing longwave radiation does; the latter is absorbed by the gaseous pollutants of the dome and reradiated back to the urban surface.

        5. According to paragraph 3, why do materials in the countryside have a lower heat capacity than materials in cities do?

        ○ The countryside in the Sun is the only important source of heat.

        ○ Construction materials in the city are not as good at keeping buildings warm as they are in the countryside.

        ○ In the countryside the solar heat that flows into the ground flows out again quickly.

        ○ Countryside vegetation prevents heat from being trapped in the ground.

        · 分析

        通過原文找出因果邏輯詞我們發現有兩處:

        第一處“Two other factors contribute to the higher overall temperature in cities.”

        第二處“But in the countryside materials have a significantly lower heat capacity because a vegetative blanket prevents heat from easily flowing into and out of the ground.”

        細節題陷阱中有一種叫做偷換概念,需要考生們仔細審題,題干問的是“why do materials in the countryside have a lower heat capacity than materials in cities do?

        第一處表達的是“the higher overall temperature in cities”的原因,顯然不是我們要找的答案;

        第二處說的是“in the countryside materials have a significantly lower heat capacity”,很明顯答案在第二處,匹配選項答案是 D.




        實戰練習

        例2.(OG: Lascaux Cave Painting)Paragraph 6

        Perhaps so much time has passed that there will never be satisfactory answers to the cave images, but their mystique only adds to their importance. Certainly a great art exists, and by its existence reveals that ancient human beings were not without intelligence, skill, and sensitivity.

        11. According to paragraph 6, why might the puzzling questions about the paintings never be answered?

        ○ Keeping the paintings a mystery will increase their importance.

        ○ The artists hid their tools with great intelligence and skill.

        ○ Too many years have gone by since the images were painted.

        ○ Answering the questions is not very important to scholars.

        · 分析

        這道細節題本身不難,但是出錯率很高,很多學生選擇A,為什么?因為C選項和原文“but their mystique only adds to their importance.”表達的意思一樣。

        細節題選的是符合題干的選項,也即是問什么答什么。比如我問張三有多高?張三說我很帥,張三確實帥但是不是我要的答案。細節題中很具有迷惑性的選項叫“答非所問”,同學們一定要細心,回到本題,題干問“why might the puzzling questions about the paintings never be answered?”,題干給的是結果,讓我們找原因,掃讀原文發現“Perhaps so much time has passed that there will never be satisfactory answers to the cave images,其中“that there will never be satisfactory answers to the cave images”表達的意思等于題干“the puzzling questions about the paintings never be answered”,很明顯“so much time has passed”就是我們找的答案,確定正確答案選C




        實戰練習

        例3.(tpo7p1q7) Paragraph 4:

        The time had come to formulate a hypothesis. The investigators theorized that about 20 million years ago, the Mediterranean was a broad seaway linked to the Atlantic by two narrow straits. Crustal movements closed the straits, and the landlocked Mediterranean began to evaporate. Increasing salinity caused by the evaporation resulted in the extermination of scores of invertebrate species. Only a few organisms especially tolerant of very salty conditions remained. As evaporation continued, the remaining brine (salt water) became so dense that the calcium sulfate of the hard layer was precipitated. In the central deeper part of the basin, the last of the brine evaporated to precipitate more soluble sodium chloride (salt). Later, under the weight of overlying sediments, this salt flowed plastically upward to form salt domes. Before this happened, however, the Mediterranean was a vast desert 3,000 meters deep. Then, about 5.5 million years ago came the deluge. As a result of crustal adjustments and faulting, the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Mediterranean now connects to the Atlantic, opened, and water cascaded spectacularly back into the Mediterranean. Turbulent waters tore into the hardened salt flats, broke them up, and ground them into the pebbles observed in the first sample taken by the Challenger. As the basin was refilled, normal marine organisms returned. Soon layer of oceanic ooze began to accumulate above the old hard layer.

        7. According to paragraph 4, which of the following was responsible for the evaporation of the Mediterranean's waters?

        ○ the movements of earth's crust

        ○ the accumulation of sediment layers

        ○ changes in the water level of the Atlantic Ocean

        ○ changes in earth's temperature

        · 分析

        通過題干中 “responsible for”確定考察的是因果邏輯,定位到本段第三句話,但句子前后并沒有找到明顯的因果邏輯詞,然后繼續通讀往下讀,發現怎么讀都覺得沒有正確答案同時又浪費了很多時間。

        在這里,給大家補充一個不常見的因果邏輯的另類表達,即and引導的兩個句子也隱含因果邏輯關系。比如”He is too old and he can’t walk,”,仔細體會其中的意思“他太老了and不能行走”,蘊含的就是因果邏輯關系。

        回到本題“Crustal movements closed the straits, and the landlocked Mediterranean began to evaporate. ”(因為地殼運動封閉了海峽,被陸地包圍的地中海也開始蒸發。)如果大家能識別到這層關系,很明顯A就是正確選項



      常見因果邏輯詞

        下面來總結一下托福閱讀中常見的因果邏輯詞,希望同學們能夠熟記巧用。

        顯性:because(of), since, for, as, due to, owing to, In that, so(that), therefore, thus, hence, as a result, consequently...

        隱性:cause, lead to, make,render, stimulate, spur, spark, push, motivate, prompt, be responsible for...


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