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      托福閱讀插入句子題的句間銜接方式

      2019-04-10 14:54     供稿單位: 新航道     原創作者: 易艷    

      出國英語考試有哪些 雅思6.5是什么水平 雅思閱讀評分標準 托福閱讀評分標準 雅思和托福的區別

        插入句子題是托福閱讀的必考題型之一,基本一篇文章一個,一般放在倒數第二個題型。剛開始接觸托福閱讀的同學在做這個題型的時候往往心里慌得很,對著段落里面的四個小黑框無從下手。

        下面我們就詳細地講一講到底該如何把要插入的句子放入合適的小黑框插入句子題著重考查的是句間的邏輯關系,也就是考生能否分析清楚段落里面句子和句子之間是如何銜接的。插入句子題常考查的句間銜接方式主要有三種:



        第一種:指代銜接

        這種銜接方式是最簡單的一種,做題碰上的話基本不會給考生造成障礙,只需要搞清楚指代詞指代什么基本就能得出正確答案。

        我們以TPO19 Passage2Question13為例:

        Although the ecosystem concept was very popular in the 1950s and 1960s, it is no longer the dominant paradigm. ■ Gleason's arguments against climax and biome are largely valid against ecosystems as well. ■ Furthermore, the number of interactions is so great that they are difficult to analyze, even with the help of large computers. Finally, younger ecologists have found ecological problems involving behavior and life-history adaptations more attractive than measuring physical constants. ■ Nevertheless, one still speaks of the ecosystem when referring to a local association of animals and plants, usually without paying much attention to the energy aspects. ■

        要插入的句子:They may be more interested in researching, for example, the adaptations that some aquatic animals undergo to survive in dry desert environments.

        句子里出現的指代詞是they,而且說他們可能對研究更感興趣,那說明前句應該要提到很多人,然后接著說they才比較符合行文邏輯。四個黑框前句有提及很多人的只有第三個黑框前句出現了younger ecologists,所以答案就是第三個黑框。



        第二種:邏輯銜接

        這種銜接比指代銜接難度系數稍微大一點,需要考生知道常見的一些邏輯關系,包括因果,轉折,遞進等。

        我們以TPO15 Passage1 Question12為例:

        Leatherbacks keep their body heat in three different ways. The first, and simplest, is size. The bigger the animal is, the lower its surface-to-volume ratio; for every ounce of body mass, there is proportionately less surface through which heat can escape. An adult leatherback is twice the size of the biggest cheloniid sea turtles and will therefore take longer to cool off. Maintaining a high body temperature through sheer bulk is called gigantothermy. ■It works for elephants, for whales, and, perhaps, it worked for many of the larger dinosaurs. ■It apparently works, in a smaller way, for some other sea turtles. ■Large loggerhead and green turtles can maintain their body temperature at a degree or two above that of the surrounding water, and gigantothermy is probably the way they do it. ■Muscular activity helps, too, and an actively swimming green turtle may be 7°C (12.6°F) warmer than the waters it swims through.

        要插入的句子:However, these animals have additional means of staying warm.

        句子里面出現了轉折的邏輯關系,也就意味著這句話的前句和這句話的后句應該是在講不一樣的保持溫暖的方法。分析整段我們會發現第四個黑框前面都是在講gigantothermy這種方法,后面在講肌肉活動也能夠幫助保持溫暖,那要插入的句子放在第四個黑框是最合適的。



        第三種:語義銜接

        這種銜接方式難度系數最大。不像指代銜接和邏輯銜接會有比較明顯的信號詞,它需要考生完全理解要插入的句子和段落原文。碰到這種銜接方式需要記得插入的句子作用都是承前啟后。

        我們以TPO11 Passage3 Question13為例:

        Many signals that animals make seem to impose on the signalers costs that are overly damaging. ■A classic example is noisy begging by nestling songbirds when a parent returns to the nest with food. ■These loud cheeps and peeps might give the location of the nest away to a listening hawk or raccoon, resulting in the death of the defenseless nestlings. ■In fact, when tapes of begging tree swallows were played at an artificial swallow nest containing an egg, the egg in that “noisy” nest was taken or destroyed by predators before the egg in a nearby quiet nest in 29 of 37 trials. ■

        要插入的句子:The cheeping provides important information to the parent, but it could also attract the attention of others.

        這句話的意思是說吱吱的叫聲提供重要的信息給父母,但是也會吸引其他動物的注意。插入的句子承前啟后也就意味著前句要出現parent,后句要出現其他的動物。回到段落里面我們發現第二個黑框前面出現了a parent,后面出現了a listening hawk or raccoon,那顯然放第二個黑框最合適。

        以上就是托福閱讀插入句子題常見的三種句間銜接方式,大家以后再拿到插入句子題就可以先冷靜分析是哪一種銜接方式然后再選擇合適的黑框了。



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